Bitcoin stock to flow

Price increase drives 98% of Bitcoin holders into a state of profit.

Price increase drives 98% of Bitcoin holders into a state of profit.
by Mickael Mosse
The price of bitcoin jumped significantly on Wednesday after the payment processor Paypal announced cryptocurrency support. The jump in value has pushed a large number of bitcoin holders into a state of profit, according to Glassnode “percent of UTXOs in profit” statistics. Based on the current data, 98% of all bitcoin UTXOs are in a state of profit touching levels previously recorded three years ago in December 2017.
The price of bitcoin (BTC) closed at a high at $13,184 per coin on Wednesday, October 21 following the announcement from Paypal. During the evening trading sessions, the onchain research and analysis firm Glassnode tweeted about the number of bitcoin unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs) in profit. A UTXO refers to the amount of bitcoin someone holds that has not been spent and is simply stored in a bitcoin wallet.
“98% of all bitcoin UTXOs are currently in a state of profit,” Glassnode tweeted. “A level not seen since Dec 2017, and typical in previous BTC bull markets.”

https://preview.redd.it/1dtqk311dvu51.png?width=1450&format=png&auto=webp&s=67b10a88f9891ade45f459dcf03fc70bad23b5c9
Since then the price has dropped a hair but the price of bitcoin (BTC) is still up 4.3% over the last seven days. Long term holders have seen a 72.4% increase during the last 12 months, 34.9% during the last 90-days and 22% against the 30-day span. Glassnode’s onchain stats report, details that the subindex measuring investor “sentiment” increased ending the week “at 70 points.”
A number of crypto analysts and traders believe that bitcoin’s current price range is a key indicator for moving forward. Moreover, BTC’s dominance level, it’s market cap measured against all 7,000+ crypto assets, has risen to 63.2%. The senior financial analyst at Fxpro, Alex Kuptsikevich, believes bitcoin is testing crucial macro levels.
“At current levels, Bitcoin is testing cyclical highs,” Kuptsikevich wrote in a note to investors. “Since the beginning of 2018, it has not been able to gain a foothold at levels above $12,000. It is equally important that at new highs, indicators like the RSI are far from the overbought condition, indicating significant potential for further growth. Closing the week above $12,800 would be the highest level in two and a half years, opening a direct path of growth to the historic highs of $20,000 that we saw three years ago.”
Kuptsikevich added:
Bitcoin breaking through two round levels of $12k and $13k opens doors for further growth. The current price dynamics led the coin to re-test the peak of july 2019, which at that time was the highest point of the rally. Nowadays, purchases take place against the background of confidence that bitcoin has more and more supporters in the traditional financial world.
Eric Demuth, cofounder and CEO of Bitpanda believes that cryptocurrencies, in general, started to “establish themselves as a trusted asset class of the worldwide financial market such as gold and stocks.” Demuth thinks that the Paypal support announced on Wednesday is just the start, as he believes more large players will be joining the crypto party.
“2020 has shown that crypto is here to stay,” Demuth explained. “There has been a huge inflow of institutional capital as well as record numbers of new retail customers adopting cryptocurrencies. I am certain we will see more big players like Paypal joining the party in 2021.”
Read the article here:https://mickaelmosse.com/price-increase-drives-98-of-bitcoin-holders-into-a-state-of-profit/
And don't miss out on any bitcoin news, daily on the mickaelmosse.com app.
submitted by williamsouza10 to u/williamsouza10 [link] [comments]

Help understanding counterparty, thanks in advance!

So from what I understand, counterparty uses bitcoins blockchain (not its own, or any other blockchain)
1) If it is on the bitcoin blockchain, I imagine at least 1 satoshi has to move to record it right? Where does this satoshi come from? (or is this the case?)
2) When someone simply creates a market order (to buy or sell an asset) are they making a record on the blockchain? (without it even filling?) (and again, I imagine this requires 1 satoshi to move right? So again where does this satoshi come from?)
Thanks again for your help!
submitted by timeisnow77724 to counterparty_xcp [link] [comments]

Full English Transcript of Gavin's AMA on 8BTC, April 21st. (Part 2)

Part 1
Part 3
Raw transcript on Google Docs (English+Chinese): https://docs.google.com/document/d/1p3DWMfeGHBL6pk4Hu0efgQWGsUAdFNK6zLHubn5chJo/edit?usp=sharing
Translators/Organizers: emusher, kcbitcoin, nextblast, pangcong, Red Li, WangXiaoMeng. (Ranked in alphabetical order)
18. sina
Q: 1) Hello, what's a better strategy for bitcoin holders if it hard forks at 75%? Is it worth holding of the coins in the minority chain? Or better selling them? Will the value of coins in the majority chain be weakened or reinforced? Thank you
A: 1) BIP109 does not hard fork at 75%, it hard forks 28 days after 75% has been reached-- so when the hard fork happens, there should be almost zero hash power on the minority chain. So there will not be a minority chain.
If I am wrong and blocks are created on the minority chain, people plan to get enough hash power to replace those blocks with empty blocks, so it is impossible to make any transactions on the minority chain.
Q: 2) if Bitcoin split into two chains, will it cause panic in the market, then the overall market capitalization fell?
A: 2) Bitcoin split into two chains accidentally in March of 2013, and there was panic selling -- the price dropped from $48 to $37 within a few hours. But the mining pools very quickly agreed on which branch of the chain they would support, the problem was resolved within a day, and a week later the price was over $60.
That shows the strength of consensus and incentives-- the mining pools did what was best for Bitcoin because that is what is best for themselves in the long term.
Q: 3) Now it requres 60-70G space for a full node wallet, also it takes severals days for synchronization. Technically, Is it possible in the future that a full node wallet only cost a little space and can be quickly synchronized? (Do not use light wallets and other third party wallets)
A: 3) You can run a pruned node that does not store the full block chain today (I’m running six right now on inexpensive servers around the world to test some new code).
It is technically possible to get fast synchronization without giving up any trust, but it would require miners do more work (they would have to compute and store and validate an “unspent transaction output committment hash” in the block chain). There are also schemes that would give you fast synchronization at a lightweight-wallet level of trust, but worked towards no trust if you were connected to the network for long enough.
Some developers say that you are not really using Bitcoin unless you run a full node, but that is wrong. Bitcoin was designed so that you can make the choice of speed and convenience versus trust. You give up very, very little trust if you run a lightweight wallet that supports multisignature transactions, and I think that is what most people should be running.
Q: 4) What do you think about Ethereum? Can Bitcoin achieve all the same functions claimed by Ethernet? Thank you
A: 4) I think most of the interesting things you can do with Ethereum you can also do with multi-signature Bitcoin transactions. I haven’t seen a really great use of Ethereum yet, and I think there will be a big problem with Ethereum smart contracts that are designed to steal people’s money, because very few people will have the skill necessary to tell if a complicated smart contract is correct.
I’m watching the rootstock.io project, which brings Ethereum contracts to Bitcoin.
Q: 5) Is it possible that Nakamoto may still participate in the development of Bitcoin by a pseudonym? What is the last time he contact you? Will he be back?
A: 5) Yes, it is possible. I tell reporters who ask me about Satoshi:
The idea of Bitcoin is important; who invented it is an interesting mystery, but I think it should remain a mystery until whoever invented it decides to step forward. We should respect Satoshi's privacy.
Q: 6) Now some government can prevent people from accessing foreign information using technical method(like the Great Firewall), people need to get across the wall first if they want to know information abroad. So technically speaking, is it possible that the government could block and damage the usage of bitcoin? If it is, is there any method to get across the wall?
A: 6) If a government controls network access into and out of their country (like the Great Firewall), they could easily block connections to and from today’s Bitcoin peer-to-peer network. Connections are not encrypted in any way, and most connect to port 8333, which would be easy to block.
However, blocking connections inside the country would be much harder. And it only takes one encrypted or satellite or microwave or laser connection that bypasses the firewall to get around the blockage and get blocks and transactions flowing across the border again.
I think governments that decide they don’t like Bitcoin are more likely to pass laws that make it a crime to use a currency other than the official government currency to pay for things.
Q: 7) You insist on hard fork at 75%, while Chinse Mining Pools insist at 90%. So it may be easier to get support from China If Classic changes to 90%. Have you ever considered to communicate with Chinese mine pool( such as convening a meeting) to reduce differences?
A: 7) Yes, I was in Beijing a few weeks ago to better understand what some of the Chinese mining pools are thinking. It was a productive meeting, and I look forward to communicating more with them soon.
Q: 8) How will halving and block size increasing impact the bitcoin price in your opnion? Thanks.
A: 8) The price, today, is a reflection of confidence. If people think Bitcoin will be valuable in the future, they are willing to buy it and hold it.
Everybody knows the halving will happen, so, theoretically, that should not affect today’s price.
I believe that increasing the block size limit would be very good for the price, because Bitcoin is more valuable the more people who are able to use it.
Q: 9) Technically, bitcoin should also have drawbacks. Some disadvantages may be improved in the future , while some may be difficult to improve. What are those shortcomings for bitcoin to hard to improve in your opinon? Are you an optimist thinking that all technical shortcomings are temporary, and they will all likely to be improved in the future?
A: 9) Every successful technology is full of shortcomings. It is always easier to look backwards and see your mistakes. Smart engineers are very good at working around those shortcomings, and wise engineering managers know when to work around a shortcoming to remain compatible with the existing technology and when it makes sense to break compatibility because eliminating a shortcoming would have large benefits.
Q: 10) If there is a kind of altcoin in the future goes beyond Bitcoin, it must has the advantage Bitcoin can not have, right? Conversely, if Bitcoin itself evolves fast, improves and adds new features, it will be difficult to be surpassed and eliminated, right? What does Bitcoin scalability and evolution capability look like?
A: 10) People are funny -- I can imagine an altcoin that has no technology advantages over Bitcoin, but some people prefer it for some reason. I live in a town where a lot of people care a lot about the environment, and I could imagine them deciding to use a “GreenCoin” where all miners must be inspected regularly and must use only solar power.
I think many engineers tend to over-estimate the importance of new features, and under-estimate the importance of reliability, convenience and reputation.
Satoshi designed Bitcoin to be very scalable, and to be able to evolve. I think the best way for any technology to scale and evolve is competition -- make the technology open, and let companies or teams compete to build the most reliable, convienent and secure products. That looks like (and is!) a very messy, chaotic process, but it produces better results, faster, than a single person or team deciding on on approach to solving every problem.
Q: 11) If R3 succeeds, will it challenge bitcoin in transnational remittances?
A: 11) Maybe -- if banks involved in R3 could make it very convenient to get money into and out of their blockchain. They might not be able to do that because of regulations, though. But I don’t know much about the international remittance market and what regulations the banks will have to deal with.
Q: 12) Can blockchain only be secured by mining? Some private blockchain do not have mining property, are they really blockchain?
A: 12) Security is not “yes it is secure” or “no it is not secure.” Proof of work (mining) is the most secure way we know of to secure a blockchain, but there are less secure methods that can work if less security is OK. And less security is OK for some private blockchains because if somebody cheats, they can be taken to court and money can be recovered.
Q: 13) Will public chain, private chain and R3 chain coexist for a long time? Or only one chain survive finally? What is the relationship among Bitcoin block chain, private chains and R3 chain , complementary or competitive? Will Bitcoin block chain eventually win?
A: 13) My guess is all of the “blockchain for everything” excitement will die down in a year or two and a lot of people will be disappointed.
Then a few years later there will be blockchains for everything, running quietly inside stock markets and currency exchanges and lots of other places. Some of them will use the Bitcoin blockchain, some of them won’t, and nobody besides blockchain engineers will care much.
Throughout it all, I think it is most likely Bitcoin continues to grow, hopefully with less drama as it gets bigger and more mature.
Q: 14) Some people think that it is difficult for the outside world to understand the technical details if lightning network is controlled by blockstream or another company, resulting in technological centralization, what’s your opinion?
A: 14) I don’t worry about that, the lightning protocol is being designed in the open as an open standard. It is complicated, but not so complicated only one person or company can understand it.
Q: 15) What is the procedure Bitcoin Core modify the rules? Take the 2M hard fork proposal as an example, I saw there are concerns that if one of the five core developers who have write access reject the proposal will be rejected. So If happens, does that mean the launch hard ford in July will be abandoned? What is percentage of agreement in Core developers to write code for such a major bifurcation matter like 2M hard fork? Are there any specific standards? Or the lead developer has the final decision?
A: 15) That is a good question for the current active Core developers. When I was the lead developer, I would make a final decision if a decision needed to be made.
19. JR13
Q: What do you think about the future of increasing bitcoin block size limit?
A: It will happen sooner or later -- almost everybody agrees it must happen. I am still working to make it happen sooner, because the longer it takes, the worse for Bitcoin.
20. vatten
Q: What decision making process you think should be used for future bitcoin development?
A: For example, WuJiHan's proposition of service providers and mining pools collecting individual mineuser opinion. Or, a non-profit making standard making committee like IEEE, consists of people with enough expertise in bitcoin and economy, finance?
I think we should look at how development of other very successful technologies works (like email or the http protocol). I am not an expert, but open standards and open processes for participating in creating standards that are either adopted by the market or not (like the IETF process) seem to work the best.
21. kcb
Q: From my experience on Reddit, people now start to understand that evil is not Blockstream/Core's intention. They simply have a very different vision on how Bitcoin network should be running and on how future development should be heading. They do whatever they can to protect their vision, even dirty tricks, because they feel they are bringing justice.
Similarly, in Chinese community, we do see the same situation. Many Chinese Bitcoiners that showed strong enthusiasm in the past differ with each other. This even happens among my own real-life friends.
My question is: How can we separate these two groups of people who have widely divergent visions? Bitcoin cannot proceed when carrying two totally different visions.
A: I don’t know! It is always best if everybody is free to work on their own vision, but for some reason some people seem to think that the block size limit will prevent big companies from taking over Bitcoin.
I think all they will accomplish is making the technology much more complicated. And big companies are much better able to deal with and control highly complicated technologies.
22. XRP
Q: Please share your comments on ripple, Mr. Guru.
A: I haven’t paid very much attention to Ripple- the last time I looked at it was probably two years ago. Back then I thought they would have trouble with governments wanting to regulate their gateway nodes as money transmitters, but I haven’t even taken the time to see if I was right about that.
23.Lory
Q: Hi Gavin, I think you had a disagreement with the Nakamoto roadmap in Bitcoin design. Can you explain why? Thank you.
A: I assume you mean the part where Satoshi says he doesn’t think a second implementation will ever be a good idea.
I just think Satoshi was wrong about that-- if you look at very successful protocols, they all have multiple compatible implementations. We understand a lot more about what it takes to be completely compatible and have much better tools to ensure compatibility. And the fact that there now are multiple compatible implementations working on the network (btcd being probably the best example) shows both that it is possible and that the other implementations are not a menace to the network.
24. HuoDongFaBu
Q: 1) For the dispute between Core and Classic, can we refer to the theory of “Common-pool resources” (Commons) in the Western cultural tradition to understand and grasp the public and neutral property of bitcoin so at to strive for a solution which can balance interests of all parties?
A: 1) Maybe. The blockchain could be considered a Commons today-- a common, limited resource. But if control of the block size limit was given to miners, then I don’t think it fits the definition any more, because miners would have the freedom to restrict its use however they saw fit, on a block-by-block basis. That is just a simple, pure market, with transaction creators on one side and miners on the other.
Q: 2) For the application requring "bitcoin multi-signature script", can you recommend any programming language, libraries or tools?
A: 2) BitPay has some good tools: https://github.com/bitpay/bitcore I haven’t worked on any multisignature applications since writing the low-level protocol code-- there are probably other great libraries and tools that I just don’t know about.
25. zhuoji
Q: Hello Gavin, are you now still developing Classic? Will Classic proceed? Would you give up Classic and return to Core?
A: Yes, yes, and there is no “return to” -- I plan on contributing to lots of projects.
26. jieke
Q: 1) If there are one million entrepreneurs who require fund and asset securitization via block chain technology, is it possible?
A: 1) If there are ten million investors willing to fund those entrepreneurs, sure it is possible. The technology won’t be a problem, one million is not a large number for today’s computers.
Q: 2) Why can we trust Bitcoin and what are the advantages of bitcoin in online payment and settlement? Its commission fee now is not as cheap as before, besides, the time for one confirm is not fast enough. Your opinions on pros and cons of Mining and PoW?
A: 2) For people in places with good-enough banking systems like the United States or China, purchasing things inside their own country, bitcoin does not have much of an advantage over existing payment systems. But if you are buying something from somebody in another country, or you live in a place where there are no good payment systems, Bitcoin works very well.
Proof of work and mining is the most fair, decentralized way to distribute new coins. They are also the best way of securing the network that we know of so far. Perhaps in 30 years when essentially all of the new coins have been mined and computer scientists have thoroughly studied other ways of securing the network it might make sense for Bitcoin to start to switch to something other than mining and proof-of-work to secure the network.
Q: 3) How likely the possibility of replacing the existing legal currency with virtual currency?
A: 3) Very unlikely in a large country. I can imagine a small country that uses a larger country’s currency deciding to switch to a crypto currency, though.
27. IMJENNIM
Q: 1) You have always insist on larger block. Some people share the same view, they just want to increase the block size, regardless of network bandwidth restrictions in China and other developing countries. How do you see this criticism?
A: 1) Most people are using Bitcoin over very limited bandwidth connections-- most people use lightweight wallets.
If you run a business that needs a fast connection to the Internet, then it is not expensive to rent a server in a data center that has very good bandwidth. Even inexpensive servers have plenty of bandwidth and CPU power to keep up with much higher transaction volume.
If you insist on running a full node from your home, average connection speed in China today is 3.7 megabits per second, which is almost 1,000 transactions per second. Latency through the Great Firewall is a bigger issue right now, but there are several software solutions to that problem that people (including myself) are working on right now.
Q: 2) In addition, I'm curious what is your opinion on the current Bitcoin Core team? There is no doubt? If so, why not act as a Core developer contributing code in Bitcoin Core to solve these problems?
A: 2) I like most of the people on the current Bitcoin Core team, they are great. But there are a couple of people on that team I don’t want to work with, so I have decided to limit the amount of time I spend with that project.
28.ShaSiKaEr
Q: 1) Hello Gavin, I would like to ask you how long since your last contribution in Bitcoin Core or others related? Expect the big influence as one of the earliest contributors, do not you think you ought to talk about the code, mostly for the coutribution of development of Bitcoin?
A from pangcong: 1)The last commit in bitcoin core made by Gavin is on September 30, 2015, after that Gavin was busy with bitcoin XT and bicoin classic. His actual development in bitcoin has never stopped, these records are very clear on github, if you want to ask questions which are obvious, please investigate first.
A from Gavin: 1) Also: I submitted some patches to Bitcoin Core a few days ago.
Q: 2) Also, you were a neutral software engineer before, seriously committed to improving the bitcoin. But now you're playing political means to enhance your impact on the future of Bitcoin, how do you respond with it?
A from KuHaiBian: 2) Now the biggest problem in Bitcoin is not block size limit, but that there is only one development team, it is as dangerous as the situation that there is only one mining pool mining bitcoin. This is the biggest problem Gavin is trying to solve.
A from Gavin: 2) I just give my honest opinion, and try to do what I can to make Bitcoin more successful.
29.Xseraph2
Q: There is no systematic process for Bitcoin upgrades. Is there any regulation/restriction on the power of Core devs? How do we balance the conflict between the centrilized power of the devs with interest of the community consensus? Do you think Bitcoin need to learn from R3 chains or distributed ledger systems? I.e. setting up regulations to constrain the power of the devs, so that only devs with “restricted access” can contribute, not everyone.
A: Competition is the best solution. If the Core team does not make their customers happy, then they will be replaced. It might take a year or more for another team to get the reputation for high-quality code that the Core team has acquired over the years.
30. ZhongBenCong
Q: In 2016, you propose to increase block size limit to 8M, then doubled every two years. Is it still the most promising expansion plan in your opinion now? If it is, do you think it possible that the block size reach 8GB in 2036, particularly given the network speed and bandwith in developing countries.
A: I think it would be best to eliminate the block size limit entirely, and let the miners decide if they should accept or reject blocks. The miners want Bitcoin to succeed, and will not choose a size so large the network cannot handle it.
I don’t know if people would agree to eliminate the limit, though. A dynamic limit that grows, but prevents an extremely large ‘attack block’ would also be a good solution.
The growing-8MB idea came from the idea that it should be possible for somebody on a home Internet connection to continue to validate every single transaction. However, more research showed that the bottleneck is not the connection from the Internet to our homes (even in China there is plenty of bandwidth there) but connections across international borders. In particular, the Great Firewall can sometimes greatly restrict bandwidth to and from China.
31. FengFengZhongXuYaoNi
Q: Gavin, hello! What is the reason do you think the community rejected Bitcoin XT?
A: It was a mistake to try to make more changes than just simply increasing the block size limit.
32. ShaSiBiEr
Q: Now the problem of block size limit is not so serious as before when Bitoin was attacked, and the Segwit has been deployed, so what is the controversy? Why have to argue to the bitter end, must we argue until bitcoin die? Gavin, we all know your contribution to Bitcoin. But in 2015, when you said in bitcoin software development, we need a "dictator" to resolve the dispute. I think you want to be this dictator. http://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-June/008810.html
A: Must we argue until bitcoin die: I think is is in the nature of people to argue, so I think we will be arguing about lots of things until either we die or Bitcoin dies. I think in a few years we will look back and wonder why there was so much arguing, but I also think some good things have come from all of the argument.
33. HuoDongFaBu
Q: 1) What do you think about Ethereum? Can smart contract run based on Bitcoin?
A: 1) (This question is repeated. Please see Q18-4)
Q: 2) What are the problems Miners may have to face after halving in July? Thanks!
A: 2) There is a small risk that the halving will make a good fraction of the miners stop mining, because they will get about half of the bitcoins they got before the halving. And that might mean blocks take longer to create, which means less space for transactions, which might mean people get frustrated and leave Bitcoin. Which could drop the price even more, causing more miners to stop mining, more frustration, and so on.
Miners tell me they have already planned ahead for the halving and this will not happen, which is why I think it is a small risk and I don’t think the halving will be a big problem for most miners.
Q: 3) Where can we get the whole code and code review of bitcoin?
A: 3)
Bitcoin Core is at: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin
Bitcoin Classic: https://github.com/bitcoinclassic/bitcoinclassic
btcd: https://github.com/btcsuite/btcd
bitcore: https://github.com/bitpay/bitcore
submitted by kcbitcoin to btc [link] [comments]

Novice, Intermediate or Expert? A Quiz to Test Your Bitcoin Knowledge

Think you know the ins-and-outs of bitcoin? Test yourself with 30 questions that grill you on Bitcoin’s history, technology and politics. The 30 questions are split up into three segments ranging from novice to intermediate to expert, and cover a wide range of topics across the Bitcoin landscape.
If you get stuck or want to check your answers along the way, an answer sheet has been added below the quiz. Of course, these questions cover only a few points about Bitcoin so far — with so many new developments taking place, there is always more to learn. Good luck!
Novice Questions 1. Who created bitcoin?
a. Vitalik Buterin b. Gavin Andresen c. Satoshi Nakamoto d. Charlie Lee e. Jackson Palmer 2. What is the original document that proposed Bitcoin, considered by many in the space to be a “must read”?
a. The Bitcoin White Paper b. The Golden Proposal c. E-Money: Bitcoin and the Blockchain d. The Bitcoin Manifesto e. The Bitcoin Constitution 3. What is the name of the bitcoin exchange from Japan that famously collapsed in 2014 due to a devastating hack?
a. Tradehill b. Bitstamp c. Mt. Gox d. Blockchain.info e. Bit Trade 4. How many bitcoin will ever be created?
a. Unlimited b. 77,340,109 c. 3,500,000 d. 21,000,000 e. 18,650,000 5. What is the name of the off-chain scaling solution that is being developed to mitigate bitcoin’s fees and long transaction times?
a. Instasend b. Second Layer Network c. Lightning Network d. Quick Net e. The Bitcoin Payment Network 6. Which of the following statements is NOT true about bitcoin wallets?
a. Wallets can come in many forms, as long as they hold your private keys. b. Wallets have addresses that anyone can use to see the current number of unspent bitcoins in them. c. The only thing someone needs to access a wallet is the private key. d. It is possible to send bitcoin by signing the transaction offline and then broadcasting the transaction later. e. To open a wallet you must submit a request to the wallet provider. 7. What is the name of the technology underlying Bitcoin?
a. Bitchain b. Blocklink c. Blockchain d. CoinLedger e. Satoshisquare 8. True or false? Bitcoin can be sent to an Ethereum address.
a. True b. False 9. The first underground marketplace on the dark web which used bitcoin as its native currency and was created by Ross Ulbricht was called:
a. Black Onion b. BTC Market c. East India Trading Company d. Silk Road e. Worldwide Drug Emporium 10. Bitcoins can be divisible down to the eighth decimal point. What is that unit called?
a. Bit b. Satoshi c. Naki d. Shill e. Bitsat Intermediate Questions 11. Which traditional stock exchange was the first to list bitcoin futures contracts?
a. The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) b. The Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) c. The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) d. The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) e. None of the above. Futures contracts are only available on cryptocurrency exchanges like BitMex and Bitfinex. 12. The computers that find new blocks are called:
a. Accountants b. Miners c. Mitigators d. Associates e. Verifiers 13. Which of the following is NOT true about Bitcoin Cash, a fork from Bitcoin?
a. Bitcoin Cash was created over an ongoing debate within the Bitcoin community over scaling and transaction speed. b. Roger Ver uses bitcoin.com to convince new investors that Bitcoin Cash is the original bitcoin. c. Bitcoin Cash is commonly referred to as “Bcash” because (some) bitcoin proponents don’t want to give the forked currency the brand recognition that Bitcoin has accumulated since 2009. d. Bitcoin Cash uses the SHA-256 hash function (the same as Bitcoin). e. Bitcoin Cash removed its block size limit completely. 14. Where is the Bitcoin processing server located?
a. Washington, D.C., USA b. London, England c. Undisclosed location d. The United Nations votes on a new location every two years e. None of the above — Bitcoin has no processing server 15. What date was the Bitcoin network launched?
a. November 5, 2008 b. May 1, 2010 c. January 3, 2009 d. December 31, 2008 e. April 23, 2010 16. When was Bitcoin’s all-time high exchange rate achieved (as of 9/11/18)?
a. January 12, 2016 b. July 15, 2017 c. December 17, 2017 d. August 3, 2018 e. January 10, 2014 17. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Bitcoin is owned by the NSA. b. By 2030, all bitcoins will have been mined. c. Bitcoin has smart contract capabilities. d. Before Satoshi created Bitcoin, he and a group of developers premined roughly 1 million coins. e. Only select people can mine bitcoins. 18. How often, on average, can we expect a new block be found by miners?
a. > 1 second b. 2 minutes c. 10 minutes d. 60 minutes e. 6 hours 19. What is Bitcoin Pizza Day, May 22nd?
a. A day every year where people who hold bitcoin pay forward a random pizza to a stranger b. The day when a computer programmer, Laszlo Hanyecz, paid 10,000 bitcoins for two pizzas in 2010 c. The day Satoshi announced his favorite food is pizza d. The day Vitalik compared bitcoin’s security to that of a soggy pizza e. A day sponsored by Pizza Hut where you can pay for pizza with bitcoin 20. How many new bitcoins should be created each day with the current block reward, on average?
a. 2,200 except for February 29 on leap years b. 1,800 c. 5,000 d. 7,200 e. 150 Expert Questions 21. What is the difference between a soft fork and a hard fork?
a. A soft fork happens when the code of a project is copied with permission of the original developers. A hard fork happens when the code of a project is copied without the permission of the original developers. b. A hard fork is a backwards-incompatible protocol change because it makes previously invalid blocks or transactions valid. A soft fork is a backwards-compatible protocol change because it makes previously valid blocks or transactions invalid. c. A hard fork occurs when miners in a mining pool cannot agree on how the block reward should be divided. A soft fork occurs when miners in a mining pool collectively decide to change how block rewards should be distributed. d. None of the above. 22. What does ASIC stand for?
a. Applied Socioeconomic Investment Compository b. Application Specific Integrated Circuit c. Anonymous Spending Instrument for Cryptocurrencies d. Alternative Synthetic Interoperability Circuit e. Antiquated System for Implied Cryptography 23. What does an ASIC do for Bitcoin?
a. Allows consumer access to high-level investment information, similar to a Bloomberg terminal b. Allows users to trade cryptocurrencies between different blockchains c. Anonymously allows users to send cryptocurrencies that aren’t entirely private d. Performs one specific task of solving a mathematical problem in order to find a new block e. Allows developers to cross reference current technology stacks with older languages 24. Is Bitcoin truly anonymous?
a. Yes, people who use bitcoin cannot have their transactions traced by anyone. b. No, bitcoin addresses are derived from IP addresses. c. No, all transactions are recorded on a global transparent ledger that can be traced using analytical technologies. d. No, addresses openly show the name of the user. e. No, bitcoins can be linked to a user’s social security number. 25. What is SHA 256?
a. A secure hashing algorithm used by Bitcoin, originally designed by the NSA b. A set of rules that miners and nodes must follow c. A scheme devised by Craig Wright to convince people he is Satoshi d. An annual conference in New York for blockchain enthusiasts e. The language Satoshi and early developers used to communicate behind closed doors 26. What is a nonce?
a. An empty value in each block that is filled by the miner of that block b. Another name for a node c. A mining device faster than an ASIC d. A part inside a processing chip used in mining e. A name for a troll in Reddit forums 27. What is “difficulty” in relation to Bitcoin?
a. A measure of how hard it is to explain what Bitcoin is b. A measure of how difficult it is to find a hash below the target c. A measure of long it takes to send bitcoin between addresses d. A measure of how difficult it is for bitcoin to move a certain number of basis points e. A measure of how hard it is for Bitcoin to recover to its all-time high 28. What is multi-sig verification?
a. An older method of confirming bitcoin transactions now replaced by single-sig verification b. Verification that a user is allowed to hold bitcoins in a certain address by requiring multiple signatures from friends and family c. A form of verifying if someone is telling the truth by having multiple signatures from people monitoring the event taking place d. A process by which miners select which transaction to verify by having three other miners create a signature giving permission for the transaction to be verified e. A technology to verify wallets by requiring multiple signatures to process a single transaction with enhanced security 29. Bitcoin consumes roughly 1 percent of the world’s energy consumption. What does this mean about its security?
a. A malicious actor doesn’t need to consider the total energy consumption in order to successfully execute a 51% attack. b. Bitcoin is secure to the point that it would require approximately 0 .0001% of the entire world’s energy consumption to attack the network. c. Bitcoin is secure to the point that it would require approximately 1% of the entire world’s energy consumption to attack the network. d. A malicious actor would need 10 times the amount of Bitcoin’s energy consumption in order to successfully attack the network. 30. What is a Merkle Root in Bitcoin?
a. A hash of all transactions in a block that allows any specific transaction to be verified without downloading the entire blockchain b. A series of complex data that uniquely identifies the owner of an address c. A program designed by David Merkle that uncovers the largest inactive bitcoin wallets d. A cryptocurrency developed by the chancellor of Germany e. A part of a complex system of underground “roots” that power the Bitcoin blockchain How did you do? Answers:
  1. c. Satoshi Nakamoto
  2. a. The Bitcoin Whitepaper
  3. c. Mt. Gox
  4. d. 21,000,000
  5. c. Lightning Network
  6. e. To open a wallet, you must submit a request to the wallet provider.
  7. c. Blockchain
  8. b. false
  9. d. Silk Road
  10. b. Satoshi
  11. d. The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE)
  12. b. Miners
  13. e. Bitcoin Cash removed its block size limit completely. (The limit is actually 32MB.)
  14. e. None of the above — Bitcoin has no central server
  15. c. January 3, 2009
  16. c. December 17, 2017
  17. c. Bitcoin has smart contract capabilities
  18. c. 10 minutes
  19. b. The day when a computer programmer, Lazlo Hanyecz, paid 10,000 bitcoins for two pizzas in 2010
  20. b. 1,800
  21. b. A hard fork is a backwards incompatible protocol change because it makes previously invalid blocks or transactions valid. A soft fork is a backwards compatible protocol change because it makes previously valid blocks or transactions invalid.
  22. b. Application Specific Integrated Circuit
  23. d. Performs one specific task of solving a mathematical problem in order to find a new block
  24. c. No, all transactions are recorded on a global transparent ledger that can be traced using analytical technologies
  25. a. A secure hashing algorithm used by Bitcoin, originally designed by the NSA
  26. a. An empty value in each block that is filled by the miner of that block
  27. b. A measure of how difficult it is to find a hash below the target
  28. e. A technology to verify wallets by requiring multiple signatures to process a single transaction with enhanced security
  29. c. Bitcoin is secure to the point that it would require 1% of the entire world’s energy consumption to attack the network. (side note: bitcoin mining, while energy intensive, can be done in an eco-friendly, even carbon-neutral, manner. And it’s getting better all the time.)
  30. a. A hash of all transactions in a block that allows any specific transaction to be verified without downloading the entire blockchain.
The article is from Bitcoin Magazine.
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submitted by uexbruce to UexOfficial [link] [comments]

Bitcoin’s Distribution Was Fair - Dan Held

https://medium.com/@danhedl/bitcoins-distribution-was-fair-e2ef7bbbc892
TL;DR (from author's Twitter):
Many people think Bitcoin’s distribution wasn’t fair, or that Satoshi “stealth mined.” Below I dive into early mining, inequality, distribution, and ethics.
For a deeper dive, my Medium post: https://medium.com/@danhedl/bitcoins-distribution-was-fair-e2ef7bbbc892
TL;DR - check out this thread 👇
Satoshi didn’t premine. Satoshi gave everyone a 2 month heads up before mining the Genesis block, reaching out to the only other people who would possibly be interested in experimenting with a sovereign digital currency at the time, the cypherpunks.
The whitepaper was published on October 31, 2008, then Bitcoin 0.1 software was released on January 9, 2009. The genesis block (the only block specially minted earlier) has a timestamp of 18:15:05 GMT on January 3, 2009.
Satoshi included a message in the Genesis Block as a “proof of no premine.” “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”
Before Satoshi’s invention, the concept of pre-mining didn’t exist. To be this prescient demonstrated incredible maturity.
Anybody else could have mined by downloading the software (had a 1-click miner). The code to mine bitcoin was available on the day Satoshi began mining. Satoshi definitely wasn’t mining alone - we know for a fact that Hal Finney was mining one day after the initial launch.
Satoshi mined because the network required a miner, he turned them off when there was a stable network that didn’t need his mining power. He reduced his % of the hashrate in a slow and steady manner. This implied Satoshi had a hashrate plan.
How much did Satoshi mine? Other than 50 coins, it’s not empirically knowable how many he owned, but we can assign a high probability that he was the miner who minted close to ~700,000.
BitMEX reviewed the original estimate made by Sergio Demian Lerner where he discovered that Satoshi’s miner “fingerprint,” and concluded that there is reasonable evidence that a single dominant miner in 2009 could have generated around 700,000 bitcoin
Bitcoin’s market cap was ~$0 for nearly a year and a half. Miners were wasting money on hardware and electricity to mine, with no guarantee that the Bitcoins they received would ever have value.
“Faucets” were set up to freely distribute Bitcoins in order to “seed” adoption. The first recorded exchange of Bitcoin for “real world” value occurred on May 22, 2010, where Laszlo Hanyecz agreed to pay 10,000 Bitcoins for two delivered Papa John’s pizzas.
“It might make sense just to get some in case it catches on. If enough people think the same way, that becomes a self fulfilling prophecy.” — Satoshi Nakamoto
The early pioneers were the ones crazy enough to take the financial, temporal and social risks to participate in the Bitcoin project, keeping it alive and acting as arbiters of the system in its early days. Nearly all lost or sold all of their Bitcoins
With each of those boom/bust cycles we’ve seen Bitcoin redistributed from old hodlers to new hodlers via selling, decreasing the Gini Coefficient. In 2017 alone, we saw 15% of all BTC move out of old hodler hands
The theoretical total number of bitcoins, slightly less than 21M, should not be confused with the total spendable supply. The total spendable supply is always lower than the total supply, and is subject to accidental loss, willful destruction, and technical peculiarities
"Ten years ago cryptographers and HCI experts created the ultimate experiment to see how well human beings could hold onto long-lived secret keys...the results of that experiment have not been pretty." - Some Cryptographer on Twitter
There are many stories of people losing BTC in large amounts — especially in the early days — when BTC wasn’t worth much and was easily forgotten on an old hard-drive, USB memory stick, even a scrap of paper.
Coins which remain unspent for >5 years have a high likelihood to be lost forever. Despite the richness of blockchain data, it’s extremely difficult to measure how much cryptocurrency is truly lost, as lost coins leave no trace in the blockchain.
“The study of lost bitcoin is geology masquerading as data science.” — @dhruvbansal Unchained Capital did a great analysis of lost coins and estimate: 2.78–3.79M BTC lost which aligns with another more sophisticated analysis done by Chainalysis
“Lost coins only make everyone else’s coins worth slightly more. Think of it as a donation to everyone.” — Satoshi Nakamoto
From private key management mistakes, to scams and exchange hacks, to resisting selling temptation, early HODLers SURVIVED. In compensation for that risk, they absolutely deserve the value appreciation.
Some argue Bitcoin’s distribution is analogous to a Ponzi scheme, but it’s nothing like one: it was transparent, offered no return, and has immense utility.
“Bitcoins have no dividend or potential future dividend, therefore not like a stock. More like a collectible or commodity.” — Satoshi Nakamoto
Satoshi was a person like any other, not some infallible being. This was the fairest distribution he could have come up with. It’s intellectually dishonest to compare Satoshi’s early mining of Bitcoin at a loss, with premining of an ICO with a positive market value.
"Bitcoin benefited from a very rare set of circumstances. Because it launched in a world where digital cash had no established value, they circulated freely. That can’t be recaptured today since everyone expects coins to have value. The immaculate conception"
Other than sending a few worthless coins in test transactions, Satoshi never cashed out.
submitted by TheGreatMuffin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Coke machine used to explain MtGox "hack"

Here is an analogous demonstration of how the trick works.
http://youtu.be/mNWLxLMX3zM
  1. pay for a drink (request withdraw)
  2. block drink from activating sensor that indicates successful product delivery (make duplicate tx with different id to evade detection of bitcoin delivery)
  3. machine believes the drink selected was out of stock and returns coins (complain for refund)
  4. use same coins to buy another drink (request another withdrawal)
Not shown in the video is the after effect of this "hack". Every time this is done the machine marks the selected column of drinks as out of stock. Later when an honest customer requests that drink they are told it is out of stock even though they can see it sitting there behind the glass. This corresponds to all the honest transaction that have been failing because MtGox has incorrect knowledge about which unspent outputs they still had available.
submitted by vortexas to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

An alternate currency system

TLDR: A digital currency where everyone is fed money at a constant rate. All money has a life expectancy from it's appearance in a wallet, dying after a period of time and faster as more money is accumulated.

I’m not an economist. But I’ve worked through this thought experiment in my head, and I’d like to know why this wouldn’t work or is wrong.
Traditional ideas of currency have revolved around the amount of value each unit of the currency represents. Now, value itself is an abstract idea, and so we have historically tied it to different things. Earliest on, it was just an IOU for a particular item, say, an egg for a penny. This was nice because the value of eggs seemed relatively stable. However, it wasn’t stable enough and as the idea spread to more and more people it was no tenable geographically. So, the state stepped in and said that it had the same value as something else: precious metals, usually gold. But there’s nothing fundamentally different between gold and eggs: It is produced, used, and destroyed, just over much longer timescales than eggs.
As a result, we took currency one step further: let’s make it worth a fraction of the value of our whole economy. Now, a dollar’s value is set only by the expected amount of economic activity it can provide. Unfortunately for us, we’re still backing our currency as we always have. Even worse, not all portions of the economy are equal, and thus, a dollar’s real value depends entirely on where it is and who has it. Now, we have a situation where a dollar that moves from someone who will definitely spend it on real stuff to someone who has loads of dollars and can invest it, its value decays. The rich get richer, but they do so by leveraging lots of economic power to turn those decayed dollars into something else, like gold or stocks or real estate. We should thus not be surprised that, when currency loses its backed value when it is concentrated, that it will stagnate in places where the fraction of economic power it represents is less than what is taken to move that single dollar.
This is one of the reasons why taxes are such a contentious issue. If I’m poor, every dollar the government takes matters way more to me than every dollar that the government takes from a millionaire. But, subjectively, it’s not fair to take fewer dollars from the poor, if you want the currency to have the same value wherever it is.
What if we backed our money by something else? A collective agreement to reduce suffering and for progress?
Let us imagine a digital currency, something like bitcoin, which I’ll abbreviate U for now. Every person has a wallet, and your wallet is unique to you. Your wallet is fed brand new currency at a constant rate. U never actually moves between wallets, it is deleted from one and born again in the new wallet.
Unspent U has a life expectancy that is a monotonically decreasing function of the size of the wallet when it is born. The bigger the wallet, the faster its decay. Because U magically appears and disappears in wallets, this function sets a maximum and minimum rate of constant income.
That’s basically it. No taxes, because a government in charge of U can make it rain wherever it serves the public interest to do so. Millionaires will still want to spend their money, because wallets that have a lot of money shrink faster than wallets with less. Although you will set higher bounds for company’s wallets, they still will prefer to spend their money rather than let it decay, and it will never be worth it for a bank to collect and sit on too much money.
The total amount of currency will end up being a function of currency mobility and the number of wallets, and since there is baseline wealth, the value of bare necessities will be anchored by this wealth. The only way to get the market to bear higher rents is to keep a relatively wide wealth distribution, and so these forces would act together to keep the economy stable.
You may say – if everyone is guaranteed a basic income, nobody will have incentive work! That may be true, but let’s check out a counterpoint. The minimum wage a company will have to provide is… 0U. This means that minimum wage jobs will only be able to attract workers by the promise of upward mobility, training, or jobs that the workers feel are valuable. With such a seismic shift on the interests of companies versus the interests of workers, the very nature of work may change. It may even be possible that workers will value working somewhere so much that they would pay the company to do that work – and if this is the case, the government could even subsidize or cover those costs to maintain access for everyone. So yes, some people probably wouldn’t work. But in our current system, we have millions of people who can’t or don’t work, or do jobs that don’t really add anything to progress. At least this way, there will be an easy solution for all of these problems.
In this system, the best way to get rich is not to be born into wealth or to have a big company, but to create a lot of value fast. There are some things that break down in this view. Insurance the way we know it becomes impossible, so too does complex financial tools that leverage large amounts of wealth. I think on the whole the latter is probably a good thing. We can change insurance companies from being big financial entities to people who negotiate with the central bank for what should be insured for what, since it can just make the money as necessary. We can also imagine a whole group of people who the central bank pays just to find ways to make things more efficient.
submitted by jrclimer to hypotheticalsituation [link] [comments]

Blockchain Basics: Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO ... Understanding Bitcoin: Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO ... Evolution of Bitcoin's UTXO Hack Bitcoin From Blockchain Unspent and Unconfirmed ... What is a UTXO

As for Bitcoin, as of 11:18 UT on September 22, BTC-USD is trading around $10,472, down 1.5% in the past 24-hour period. Source: CryptoCompare As for rest of the other cryptoassets, to give you a rough idea of how things are going right now, 15 out of the top 20 cryptoassets by market cap are currently in the red (i.e. down against USD). 2 days 98% of Unspent Bitcoin Transaction Outputs Currently in a State of Profit CryptoGlobe )8% of Bitcoin’s unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs) are currently in a state of profit, a level that hasn’t been seen since December 2017, when the price of bitcoin hit its all-time high close to $20,000. “How many unspent bitcoins exist?” “How many bitcoins have been lost?” “How many bitcoins are left sitting in wallets, and how does this affect price?” If Unspent is simple enough for newcomers, and powerful enough for serious investors. Create an account, connect your exchanges and wallets, and let Unspent crunch numbers and handle the rest. Your portfolio will always be up to date, with helpful insights about your assets, trades, risk profile, market analysis, activity on open finance services, and more. If we put current Bitcoin stock to flow value (27) into this formula we get value of 10.750 USD. This is the price which is indicated by the model. But, there is one more component that we include in this calculation. It is estimated that during first year of bitcoin (2009) Satoshi Nakamoto (Bitcoin creator) mined around 1 million Bitcoins and did not move them until today. It can be debated ...

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Blockchain Basics: Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO ...

Blockchain Basics: Unspent Transaction Output explained simply. The UTXO is a method of keeping balance, avoiding double spend, and maintaining chain of owne... What are unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs) and where are they stored? What is dust UTXO? What should you do if all your coins are in a single address? How ... Understanding how the blockchain works with transactions, not balances is a key concept, and in particular, how unspent transaction output works (UTXO) UTXO stands for Unspent Transaction Output, think of it as piece of money. The ways you're able to use Bitcoin will vary alot by which wallet software you use. Here's a couple to try out: Android ... 💾 DOWNLOAD LINK: https://bit.ly/3kfU8jQ =====Don't forget===== LIKE COMMENT SHARE SUBSCRIBE 👍 Smash the “Like”...

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